By Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer
This monograph presents a global point of view on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, together with the matter of geogenic acidification. a lot has been realized over the past decade via examine and useful adventure on the right way to mitigate or remediate the environmental difficulties of acidic pit lakes. within the first a part of the publication, normal clinical matters are awarded in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental technology, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and at the abnormal organic gains that happen within the severe habitats of acidic pit lakes. one other bankruptcy presents an outline of equipment at the moment used to remediate acidic pit lakes and deal with outflowing acidic water. the second one a part of the publication is a suite of nearby surveys of pit lake difficulties from 3 eu nations and Australia, and case reviews of assorted person consultant lakes. a last case examine presents an cutting edge method of assessing the industrial price of recent pit lakes and balancing the prices and merits, a beneficial device for choice makers.
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Extra info for Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines
Von Rohden and Ilmberger 2001). In small- to medium-size lakes, this turbulent transport mainly happens at the side boundaries where waves and currents interact with the slope of the side walls (Gouldsmit et al. 1997). 0 m 10 m 18 m 31 m temperature [°C] 20 15 10 5 XN5 − 2004 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Julian day of 2004 Fig. 8 Temperature time series acquired at several depths in Lake Goitsche at sampling site XN5 Fig. g. Lake Constance, Boehrer et al. 2000; Kocsis et al. 1991). As the density gradient is the crucial quantity to overcome, transport coefficients have been correlated with the potential density gradient in the form of a stability frequency N2 ¼ À g oq q oz ð3:6Þ for an empirical correlation of transport coefficients under given stratification conditions (Heinz et al.
As the density gradient is the crucial quantity to overcome, transport coefficients have been correlated with the potential density gradient in the form of a stability frequency N2 ¼ À g oq q oz ð3:6Þ for an empirical correlation of transport coefficients under given stratification conditions (Heinz et al. 1990; von Rohden and Ilmberger 2001). 34 3 Limnology of Pit Lakes In contrast, during circulation periods, vertical transport happens at a fast rate. Oxygen is supplied to deeper layers of the lake and dissolved substances, which have accumulated in the deep waters during the stratification period, are redistributed through the lake.
17a), aluminum, the heavy metals including iron (Fig. 17b), and silicon (Fig. 17c) follow this pattern. Whereas ferric iron and oxidized manganese species increasingly precipitate with increasing pH, concentrations of iron and manganese can still be elevated under neutral conditions due to the high solubility of iron(II) and manganese (II) at anoxic conditions. 17 a–c shall be used for a brief discussion of some fundamental biogeochemical rules in pit lake water; these rules are well established in geochemistry and have been discussed in more detail by Eary (1999).
Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines by Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer